Handicraft fields

Native Handicrafts of Southern Khorasan province

Take handicrafts very seriously, and we must investment on them. I believe we have to discuss the policy needs of handicrafts.
I can't properly express my feelings about these beautiful and stunning works, so I recommend you to expand the scope of this work as much as you can and link them with the things that are worthy of our nation's history, traditions, and beliefs, to make your eternal work much more meaningful and fruitful and conceptualize them.
A selection the Islamic Revolutionary Leader statements regarding the importance of Handicrafts/(2009)

The historical background of handicrafts of the province

Handicrafts of each area are affected by the cultural, geographical and historical environment of that land. Due to its special geographical location and culture, the south region of Greater Khorasan has its own handicrafts. The word Qohestan, which is mostly considered to be the Arabic word for mountains, and it is referred to the existence of mountains, includes a vast area that was located on the path of important communication routes that connected the southern parts of the country to Herat, Neishabur and Greater Khorasan.
Most of people in this area have farm around the canals and fountains and livestock is the people’s main job. In addition to these jobs, they produce handicrafts such as cloth weaving, carpet weaving, Kilim weaving (kind of rug), basket weaving and pottery.
Maqdasi writes in the book Ahsan al-Taqasim: (From Qohestan, clothes such as white Nishaburi, carpets, prayer-carpet (Ja Namaz)... and the like are exported). In the book Ashkal al-Alam Jaihani, which belongs to the middle of the 4th century of Hijri, it is stated: (In the province of Qohestan, they weave good canvas, good carpets like Jahromi and it is mostly in Tun (Firdous) and from there they take it to Nishabur and other provinces.)" Nasser Khosro Qobadiani mentioned four hundred Zilubafi (carpet) workshops in the big city of Tun. This shows the history of this field of indigenous handwovens of South Khorasan, and its beginning goes back at least 1000 years ago. Cecil Edwards also mentioned in the book (Iranian Carpet) a type of Arabic woven carpets in the Ferdows region. MacGregor in the book (Describing a trip to Khorasan province) says the following about Qain's handicrafts: (...here, we should mention the embroidery on silk that is done by women. Although it is not very beautiful, it is in its own way. It is unique because it cannot be found anywhere else and it is disappearing...) and also in Clark's travelogue it is mentioned about Birjand: (It should be noted that Birjand also has skilled blacksmiths and gunsmiths).

Barak Weaving
The weaving of traditional textiles with various raw materials (cotton, wool, silk and fur) and with the help of traditional and relatively complex two vardi and four vardi looms has been widespread in the region that is called South Khorasan today. It is very important from the point of view of those interested in authenticity. Barak weaving, which is called (Kurki weaving or Korgin weaving) is one of the oldest handicrafts in the south of Greater Khorasan, and its production dates back to before the Seljuk period.
Barak, which is called Korki, Kurgi, or Kurgin in local terms, is a thick fabric made of goat and camel fur, which is used for winter clothing, and in terms of strength, softness, warmth and therapeutic properties have special and unique characteristics.
Fur fabrics are produced with simple and checkered designs and using natural color fur fibers (color spectrum from light cream to black). The applications of fur fabrics include: Papich (Patabeh), women's and men's coats, women's chadors, neck and waist scarves, and Mandil (a kind of traditional head coverer). Sarbisheh city (especially Moud), Nehbandan, Khoosf and Bushrouyeh were the main areas of Barak cloth production in the past. Barak weaving skill is registered with number 810 in the normal list of national intangible heritage.

To Bafi
To Bafi, which is referred to as To Bafi or Tun Bafi in local terms, is one of the oldest handicrafts in South Khorasan. According to historical documents, the fame of handwoven cotton and silk fabrics produced in the old Qohestan state in the early Islamic centuries has been mentioned a lot.
The weaving of traditional fabrics in South Khorasan is done today, as in the past, with traditional two- or four-Verdi machines and simple work tools. With the help of this machine, wefting (with unlimited color variations) and Daftine are done with regular hand and foot movements, produces different types of fabrics based on the type of raw material.
Among the types of motifs used in To bafi, we can mention: Kolo, Genti, Chapar Baft, Jenaghi and Simple. To bafi's various products include: all kinds of hand, face and bath towels, bread tablecloths, strainers, handkerchiefs, headscarves, longi, etc. Fabric production is currently popular in many cities of South Khorasan, including Khosuf, Nehbandan, Darmian, Sarayan, Qaynat, and Birjand city, especially Khorashad village, is one of the main towel production centers in the province.

Jajim Bafi
Jajim, which is called Jajom in the local term, is one of the oldest weavings and one of the most important and prosperous occupations of women in South Khorasan. Jajim is a hand-woven fabric similar to Palas and Glim with colored striped motifs, which are made of colorful and delicate woolen or cotton threads or a mixture of the two..
Jajim is traditionally woven on a ground weaving machin in the form of a strip with a width of 18 to 35 cm and a length of 8 to 12 meters and sometimes 20 meters depending on the size and dimensions of the workshop environment. The Jajim loom has a simple structure and consists of a Gole, metal nails, wooden tripod, Navard pi-dame, Shamshirak, Kharak band, Mako and Masoure.
In order to obtain Jajim fabric with the desired width, narrow woven strips are sewn together from the side. Most of the Jajims in South Khorasan region have a muharmat design and simple geometric patterns such as multi-petaled flowers in green, yellow, red, white and purple colors are seen in this design. In addition to underlay, Jajim is used as a bedspread, all kinds of bags, cushions, etc. At present, Qaynat city, with Rum village as the center, is one of the main production areas of this hand-woven fabric in South Khorasan province, but it is also popular in other cities, including Birjand, Sarbisheh, Nehbandan, and Sarayan.

Kilim weaving (Gelim Baffi)
Kilim is a type of carpet without piles, which is woven with many decorations. Patterns are made in Kilim by passing colored strings between the warps.Carpet Weaving is current in all the townships of the County of Southern Khorasan and some continue to weave but not very many. These motifs are often woven in a geometric and abstract form, inspired by nature and climatic and geographical conditions around the artist. There are different types of Kilims and they are known as simple Kilims (double-sided), somac (one-sided), needle, etc. The primary material used in Kilim weaving is mainly woolen yarn and cotton yarn, cotton yarn which is usually used for the warp and woolen yarn is used for the weft of Kilim. In some cases, woolen yarn combined with goat hair is used for Kilim warp. Among the most important tools used in the field of Kilim weaving, we can refer to dar"loom" (horizontal or vertical), scissors, comb, knife (paki) and gole (koji).
The weaving steps of the Kilim are the same as the carpet. The weaving method is simple and twisted (Varni). In simple weaving, the weft is placed up and down and creates the pattern, but in needle weaving, which is more popular in the Nehbandan and Qaeinat regions, the procesed wool (Khameh) creates the pattern by twisting around the warp. This type of fabric is mostly used for the production of small and delicate fabrics such as Hammian, Tubreh, Namakdan and Sofre Ardi. Kilim weaving is common in all the cities of South Khorasan province and currently it is produced in small quantities.

Tablecloth weaving (Sofre bafi)
One of the decorative applied handicrafts of Iran is called Sofre Bafi, which is considered a part of looms, and is known by the native name (Sofre Ardi) in this province. This type of textile is woven from the spun fibers of camel or sheep wool in the form of self-dyeing or vegetable dyeing with horizontal loom. The size of the tablecloths is approximately 110 x 110 cm, and motifs such as mountains, goats, rams and plants are placed in geometric shapes in the middle and on the edges, which are sometimes more prominent. These motifs are created mentally and are all taken from the nature around the weavers. When preparing the dough, women spread this cloth under Taghar (for kneading and resting the dough) and in this way they prevent the flour and dough from spilling on the ground. Another use of it is to preserve natural yeast until the next baking time (several weeks later). In recent years, this beautiful handwoven fabric has also been produced for other uses such as Roo Korsi, padri and prayer carpet. Today, one of the most important areas of this textile is Mahenj village of Qaen.

Black Tent (Siyah Chador)
Black tent is called a very simple handwoven with goat hair for use on the roof and walls of nomadic tents. The main material required for the black texture of the tent is goat hair, which is used in black, light brown (Soor) and blond colors. All cleaning and spinning processes are undertaken by the local men and women. The main products of this field are the panels of the tent, which are connected to each other in order to prepare nomadic tents of different sizes. These panels are approximately eight to ten meters long and one meter wide and are woven completely in black. Some people create simple patterns on these panels with white cotton thread to differentiate between their black tents. The tools used in black tent weaving are very simple and primitive and include a horizontal loom, a comb, Dastak (handle), and Paki. Currently, black tent is made by the residents of villages such as Seidal and Meighan in Nehbandan county and nomadic clans in Sarbisheh, Qayinat, Sarayan, And this is how they make a living.

Palaas Weaving
Plaas is a thick and rough weave of goat hair that is used as a tent, mat, etc. Plaas hair colors, based on the natural color of goat hair, range from light cream to black. Plaas weaving is simple, like the Kilim, and mostly without patterns or with very simple geometric motifs in a limited variety of colors (generally two or three colors), which are used in the form of simple strips in the hand-woven width. Sometimes, narrow strips of cotton fabrics (often old and used) are used as the weft, and in the end, a hand-woven fabric with a wide variety of colors, which is colored stripes is produced. In the native dialect of the region, the art of Plaas weaving is called the art of Labafi or Lavafi. The tools used in Plaas weaving are the same as Black tent weaving and include: horizontal loom, comb, handle and paki. In this field, in addition to underlays, all kinds of khurjin, jawal, tubreh, khakash (special for carrying soil) are also produced. Palaas are produced in all cities of province especially Sarbisheh and Nehbandan.

Traditional Felting
Felt is a non-woven textile that is produced by creating pressure, moisture and heat based on the two properties of wool fibers (curling and flaking), and it is used as underwear, hats, and shepherd's clothing (kapanak, korgoosh) in South Khorasan. Even today, felt is produced based on the oldest methods (pressing, rolling and squeezing wool).
The tools of this profession include: a felt mold, which is mostly a rectangular straw board, wool cutter, mold fixer, kelk (a long fork that is used to pour and spread the felt wool on the mold), halaji bow and Moshte Kaman (for wool hallaji) and special soap.
The felting process is a laborious and exhausting work, which sometimes requires four or five skilled men to produce some of its products, such as kapanak The types of common designs in felts of the region are: Three flowers, five flowers, flower leaves, geometric shapes, lines, surfaces and signs, which are sometimes the name of the felt makero r the owner of the felt and religious names.
Nemdmali (felt making) is one of the techniques and professions that used to be common in Birjand and some villages of Nehbandan, Ferdous, Sarayan, Tabas and Sarbisheh cities (especially Salamabad village).

Tarkeh Baffi
Making all kinds of containers using thin and slender branches of trees and shrubs is called Tarkeh baffi. After separating the desired branches from two types of willow trees (red willow (mina) and river willow) or softwood shrubs (mountain almonds, bitter almonds), they clean them from any leaves and extras. and they are classified according to length and diameter. If old and non-flexible pieces are used, they are soaked in water for several days to make them flexible and usable. To start the procces two sets of quadruple perpendicular to each other from stronger fragments, an eight-radius structure is formed that forms the basic and initial skeleton of the work. Then, the process of weaving continues with the help of thin fragments until the completion of the body of the object.
Tarkeh bafi products are mostly used as colanders for rice, washing vegetables and fruits, baskets for fruits, vegetables and flowers, drying fruits, carrying loads, and feeding places for domestic animals. The tool of this field is very simple and it is just a knife
This profession is mostly dedicated to Birjand city, especially the foothill villages of Baghran mountain range, which is the main source of raw materials for this work. But its production is popular in other cities of the province. The technique and art of Tarkeh bafi is registered as number 813 in the normal list of national intangible heritage.

Mat weaving (Hasir Bafi(
Hasir Bafi (Booria Bafi) is one of the oldest handicrafts and perhaps the oldest among them. It refers to the making of various practical products using palm leaves. The tools and devices used in Hasir Bafi include a number of simple and basic tools such as: sickle, knife, awl, scraper and needle. These tools are for cutting leaves of palm trees and use to prepare the raw materials and sometimes they make the production process easier. But what shapes wicker products is the skill and taste of artists. Hasir Bafi is popular in Tabas and Nehbandan cities, especially in Dehsalm, a tourist target village. Its products include all kinds of baskets and carrying baskets, hand fans, underlays in circular and oval forms, shilg (food storage) and decorative animals, including camels. Also, a type of Hasir Bafi with wheat stems, which is called "Pakhal Bafi" in local terms, is common in this province, which is used to prepare all kinds of baskets. This art-craft is popular in Khezri part of Qaenat city and some villages of Sarayan city.

Traditional Woodturning (Kharaty)
This art, which is considered a type of carpentry on wood, is usually common in areas of the country where wood is found more. Woodturning is a method of producing wooden products, during which a wooden cylinder is rotated around itself by means of various tools and devices, mainly by means of a traditional or electric lathe machine, and in the meantime, the additions of wood are removed by means of a chisel to form the desired shape. The main types of wood used in turning include: walnut, elm, alder, European ash, willow, plantain, tulipwood, pear, jujube and Montpellier maple. In South Khorasan, due to the abundance of walnut, jujube, and willow wood, woodturners in the region use the wood of these trees more.
Among the products made by traditional woodturning, we can refer to all kinds of sofa legs, beds legs, tables and chairs legs, rolling pins, spinning wheels and spindles, flutes and hookah bodies, etc.
The tools used in the art of turning include a lathe, gouge, chisel, drill (Parma) and drill handle, clamp, file and sanding wood, pencil, ruler and meter.
This profession has been prevalent in most of the cities of the province, including Birjand, Sarayan, Boshrouye and Ferdous

Traditional Blacksmith (Chelengari)
The process of forming metal wires and sheets with the technique of heating the metal and beating it to make various products such as sickles, hammers, horseshoes and cattle bells , etc. is called traditional blacksmithing (Chelengari). The main raw materials used in the blacksmithing industry are: used metal parts, charcoal or coal, water and Tanoukar powder. The native blacksmith's work tools consist of several light and heavy hammers, anvil, clamps and clay pot (Taghaar) filled with water, a clay furnace and a blower connected to it to aerate the coal and regulate the furnace temperature. One of the most important products of the traditional blacksmiths of South Khorasan, especially in Sarayan city, is the making of various sizes of bells used by herdsmen and shepherds, which are hung singly or in pairs on the necks of domestic animals and herd dogs. The traditional blacksmiths of Sarayan city are among Iran's capable artisans in making all kinds of bells. The making of each bell has three basic stages, in the first stage, the required iron sheet is heated inside the furnace, and additional steps are performed on it to make the body of the bell. In the second stage, the pendulum of the bell is installed, and in the next stage, sounding is done, which requires its own special skill. The welding and proper installation of the pendulum in the middle of the bell, the quality material and the pleasant sound of the bells, is the special and unique skill of the Sarayani bell makers, which is registered as number 812 in the ordinary list of national intangible heritage.

Traditional Copper Hammering (Davatgari)
Making all kinds of utensils and practical tools, including all kinds of trays, pots and pans in different sizes, bowls, plates, pitchers and glasses, copper basins, etc., by hammering ingots or copper sheets is called davatgari. This art-craft, which is called mesgari in the popular term, enjoyed a special prosperity in the country and province until several years ago, so that a market called coppersmiths' market was dedicated to the owners of this art and industry in most cities. In addition to the change of people's attitude from copper dishes to dishes made with other materials, various reasons such as the high cost of raw materials such as copper sheet and also the limitation of the market, have resulted in the severe stagnation of this art in the last few years.
Coppersmithing is an exhausting art that takes place in several stages, including: cutting copper sheets, hammering, creating toothed joints (Kaam and Zabaneh), firing and whitewashing. The main tools and raw materials needed by coppersmiths include copper sheets in various thicknesses, various hammers, pliers, anvils with different shapes, tinning (tanoukar) powder, cutting scissors, pure tin for whitewashing (tinning tableware) and open furnace.
Most of the time, whitewashing is the work of a special craftsman, but in most small towns and villages, this work is also done by coppersmiths. At present, coppersmiths in South Khorasan province are working and producing in Tabas and Boshrouyeh cities.

Toreutics (Engraving)
Decorating by creating lines and patterns and scratching the surfaces of metal objects such as vases, sugar bowls, glass bases, trays, etc., made of copper, gold, silver, brass, using Burins (Qalam) (with different tips) and with The help of masterful hammer blows is called Toreutics (metal engraving). The pens of this art, which are made of dry steel (Hard Speed Steel), are very diverse and have their own names. Like Qalam Saye (shadow Burin), round (Gerd) Qalam and sharp cutter (Teez-bor) Qalam, as well as bitumen, coal pollen and black polish oil are among the necessary materials for performing the art of engraving and transfer of patterns on dishes.
In addition to the motifs of other parts of the country, in the engraved utensils of this province, mostly the motifs of ornamental and small four-dimensianal flowers are used, and the artists, with frequent and regular geometric divisions of the work surface, repeatedly and precisely engrave these motifs inside these geometric spaces. In the old days, copper trays were mainly associated with cypress or palm designs, very simple and basic Shah Abbasid flowers, and bird designs, including the famous Tabas pelican and parrot, and animal motifs such as gazelle and deer, and flowery and leafy shrubs, but now there are valuable, delicate and miniature designs can be also seen. Filled background (Zamineh por) technique is a method that is unique to Tabas city and the features of carved dishes in this city are distinct and outstanding in the whole of Iran.
The only region in South Khorasan where engraving work on mostly copper dishes has been done since the past and is still prevalent in the desert city of Tabas. According to the old objects, metal engraving in this area has a history of at least three hundred years. At present, a small number of copper engraving workshops in other cities of the province, including Ferdous and Birjand, produce beautiful works in the way of "Jondeh Kari", "Moshabak", etc., which is expanding.

Shoemaking by Knitting and Crochet (Giveh Baffi and Giveh Doozi)
Giweh is Iranian footwear that is produced with self-dyed cotton fibers for the upper part and leather or fabric for the lower part. This footwear is cool, light, washable and suitable for Iran's climate and has been used by different classes, especially villagers and farmers, since ancient times. The holes in the cotton top of the shoe make the foot not sweat under any conditions. The raw materials and tools used to make giveh are: special needle, awl, Moshteh, hook, knife, cloth, leather, cow tallow - multi-layered cotton thread, goat hair, tragacanth, cow and donkey hoof.
The steps of making giveh are: leather making, top weaving, shoe sole making and giveh embroidery, sometimes all the steps are done by one person, but in most cases, top weaving is done by women using cotton thread and a special needle.
Two types of shoe soles are used in Givae weaving. 1- Fabric soles, which are the original type of soles and are produced from strong linen fabrics, canvas or old fabrics (Sargheychi fabrics). 2- Rubber sole, which has become common nowadays due to the time consuming and high cost of fabric sole production.
In the past, the production of giweh was common in different cities of South Khorasan province, especially in Sarayan, Birjand and Tabas, but nowadays it is rarely produced in Tabas and some villages of this city, including Korit.

Traditional Pottery
The primary material of pottery is mud, which is created by mixing clay with water, and after kneading, homogenizing and air discharging, it become completely uniform and flexible. Making dishes with clay, which is done both manually and with a wheel, is called pottery. The most important tools used by the potters of South Khorasan province are: foot or electric pottery wheel, tripod, spatula, thread, water bowl, spade, extruder, baalmil.
In the past, pottery work was exclusively for men, but in Mahdiyeh (Shahzileh), women helped in bringing mud and moving jars. Pottery in South Khorasan region has a practical aspect and most of the region's products are unglazed or with primary glaze. Shahzileh and Kosheh villages in Khosef city are old areas of making pottery. The soil used is usually clay soil and furnaces are mostly ground ones and its fuel is diesel.
Pottery in this province is build up (Kavil) and wheel methods. The build up method is commonly used to make tall containers like the oven. Wheel-working with a primary method and mostly with a foot wheel and in recent years it has been replaced with an electric wheel. Sometimes some sand is added to the pottery soil, because the potters of the region believe that the presence of sand in the soil increases the strength and resistance of the clay during baking, and at the same time keeps the cold inside the container.
The pottery of the region is mostly carved and includes: Zarb or Tunbak - Piggy Bank - Cup - Jug - Oven - Cup - Vase - Bowl - Hookah and Taghar. In addition to the cities of Birjand, Khosuf and Boshrouyeh, this handicraft is relatively popular in Ferdous city.

Traditional Embroidery (Rou-doozi)
The term Rou-Doozi or Rou-Kari, is an art in which various motifs are created on simple and mostly inexpensive fabrics by sewing or pulling a part of the fabric's warp and weft threads. The raw materials used in traditional embroidery are divided into two categories, which are: fabric and thread with different types of silk, cotton, wool, metal, or decorative pieces including precious and semi-precious stones, pearls, small mirrors, Braids, decorative coins and.... The main tools used in traditional embroidery are needle in different models and sizes, crochet hook, thimble, scissors and embroidery workshop.
Traditional embroidery of South Khorasan includes: tapestry (Malileh) embroidery, surmeh embroidery, cocoon (Pileh) embroidery, sequin (Poolak) embroidery, coin (ashrafi) embroidery, Morasa'e embroidery (stone embroidery), bead (Manjogh) embroidery, mirror (Ayeneh) embroidery, braid (Gheytan) embroidery, Yaragh embroidery, as well as Darvish embroidery, silk (Khameh) embroidery, Ajeedeh embroidery (cotton embroidery - layered embroidery), Cheshmeh embroidery, sukme embroidery, grid (Shabakeh) embroidery, Naghadeh embroidery, ten one (Dah Yek) embroidery, Zartoshti embroidery and patchwork hand embroidery are other traditional embroideries of the province. Its production has been common and customary in all cities, especially Birjand, Qayinat, Nehbandan, and Darmiyan.
Among the applications of traditional embroideries, it can be used to decorate clothes (front of the chest, collar and cuffs), cover of the Qur'an, table cloth, curtain, prayer carpet, cushion, baby clothes (head band, baby wrapper band), wedding dress, etc.

Carpet Weaving
It is a knotted weave with long strings of wool, silk or fur. The value of this handwoven is evaluated based on the quality of the raw materials, the design, and the knott count (weave density). The raw materials and equipment needed for carpet weaving include: dar and accessories (mostly metal and revolving), map, comb or daftin, knife (paki), wool and cotton thread, and in some cases, silk and fluff.
According to historical documents, this hand-woven dates back to 1100 years ago in South Khorasan region. After the installation of the loom and setting up the warps (Chelleh keshi), the installation of haf and koji wood is done and the weaving of the carpet begins. After the weaving of each row, the thick weft and generally after the weaving of 2 to 3 rows, the thin weft is passed through two rows of upper and lower (under and on) warp the carpet. Two types of Persian and Turkish weaves are common in this province, both of which have similar fake weaves, which are called double knots. These knots are often made in terms of speeding up the work of weaving and usually reduce the strength and elegance of the carpet, but due to the density of the carpets of this region, it did not have much effect on reducing the quality. Among the native and common designs (patterns) in this province, Rize Mahi in the form of a simple pattern, Panj matn, Lachak Toranj, Naghsheh Saadi, Kheshti, Kale Asbi (horse head), Botteh Jeghe, and some adapted designs such as Sheykh Safi, Darbari and Goldani, can be mentioned.
Carpet and rug weaving is popular in most cities and villages of this province, so that more than 50,000 weavers are working in this profession either full-time or seasonally. Mod and Dorokhsh has been one of the most important and famous places for the production of exquisite carpets in the past, which have world fame.

Gabbeh Carpet Weaving
Gebeh is also like a knotted and hand-woven carpet, which dates back to before the production of carpets in terms of the social needs of human societies, the possibility of quick transfer and especially the mental texture of its patterns.
This hand-woven is smaller than the carpet and has a lower density of texture and is produced on ground (horizontal) looms with approximate dimensions of 100x200 and 120x200 cm. The tools and equipments of weaving are the same as carpets. The material of high-quality Gabbeh is mostly wool and the type of knot used is mostly Turkish. Designs such as Kaj, Goldani, Sajjadeh'ie, Gol Morghi, Gol Abri, Gol Keshmiri, Fatholla khani, Gol Ayeene, Zouzani, Pa deraz, Madadkhani, Gole Kashan and animal motifs such as leopard, peacock, camel are among famous Gabbe designs in South Khorasan. Among the common designs on the border of this hand-woven fabric, can be mentioned "Cheng Chehel Morgh" and "Ya Ali". The mass production of this handwoven is in Zirkoh city and its subordinate villages includes: Haji Abad, Abiz, Fandokht, Esfad, Bahman Abad and Estend, but in other cities of the province, such as: Sarbisheh, Khosef (the tourism target village of Khor ), Nehbandan, Qaynat (especially the city of Esfeden and the villages of Korgond, Tighab and Garmab), Sarayan (especially Se-Ghale) are also engaged in the production of this handwoven fabric.

Architectural Arts
Architectural arts are a set of handcrafts that are made using various traditional architectural techniques along with taste, knowledge and traditional design on materials such as brick, plaster, lime, mirrors, etc. in the main structure of buildings with the decorative and functional purposes. The most important of these arts in South Khorasan province include traditional brickwork, traditional plastering, moqrans work, Yazdi bandi and Rasmi bandi, and all these arts are visible in the architecture of buildings, mosques and historical mansions in South Khorasan province.
Brick patterns have been implemented in different buildings with two types of molded and carved bricks and in many cases combined with other decorative elements such as plaster and stone. Among them, we can mention the beautiful brickwork on the edge of the vault of Ferdows Jame Mosque from the 7th century AH.
Plaster decorations are also used in South Khorasan architecture in two ways: cutting on the work surface and molding and installation in the desired place, which includes geometric patterns, plant patterns, animal patterns, or their combination. Baharestan Citadel, Akbariye and Rahim Abad Mansions in Birjand are excellent examples of plasterwork from the Qajar period.
Moqrans, Yazdibandi and Rasmibandi are among the plaster decorative arts that can be seen on the interior walls of buildings, roofs of buildings, Mihrabs, domes and arches of mosques and Hosseiniyehs in different Islamic centuries in this province. Hosseinieh Nawab, Shauktiyeh and Kolah Ferangi citadel in Birjand, Hindavalan Jame Mosque, Mostofi House in Beshroieh , Sarayan Mosque and Qareni House in Qain are some of the prominent examples of these arts.

Other native and common crafts of South Khorasan province
Ihrami weaving: It is called the underlay texture with dimensions of approximately 80 x 125 cm made of cotton thread with a one color background and broken geometric patterns.
Crochet: Weaving all kinds of hats, gloves, etc. with natural and synthetic fibers.
Weaving dolls: Weaving symbolic dolls with all kinds of colored fibers and adding decorative extensions.
Batik printing: It is called patterning and coloring of simple fabrics by brush, seal and wax.
Local and traditional clothes: It is called preparing and sewing men's and women's clothes with traditional fabrics dyed in a natural way and using traditional and native decorations of each region on the clothes.
Haft Rang tile: to make a kind of patterned background, consisting of square tiles, each of which has a part of the overall design.
Burning on wood: Transferring traditional motifs by burning, pressing or hitting a hot metal stamp on wood and straw.
Wooden volumes: Making decorative and functional wooden volumes using carpentry and carving tools.
Wood latticework : Removing the negative parts of the design from the wood with tools such as chisels and saws and inlaying the rest of the design.
Wood Inlaying (Moaragh): Production of decorative panels from cut pieces of wood in different colors and arranging them next to each other..
Making traditional instruments: making and decorating traditional Iranian instruments (strings, three strings, etc.) using walnut, mulberry, areca wood, etc.
Carving of gemstones: cutting and preparing stones such as turquoise, amethyst, agate, etc. in order to put them in a gold and silver frame.
Traditional carvings (Hajjaree): it is said to cut stone to the necessary dimensions and then create a pattern on it in order to decorate the walls of mosques, capitals, decorative panels, stone mortar, preparation of millstones, etc.
Local ornaments: It is called the preparation of local ornaments using metals such as gold, silver, etc. with delicate tools and traditional methods.
Glass fusion: making, preparing and connecting pieces of colored glass without the use of glue and by heating in a furnace.
Traditional design: decorating paper with a variety of traditional Iranian symbols such as Eslimi, Khataie, geometric patterns, etc.
Gilding: design of Eslimi and khataie patterns on the edges of book pages or painting with gold.
Negargari: painting of nature and creatures in which the science of landscapes and mirrors, dissection and perspective are not observed and is often executed using vegetable and hand-made colors.
Traditional book binding: it is called the preparation of the lining and sewing the parts of the book and gluing the lining, binding, etc.
Handmade leather products: production of products such as bags, shoes, belts, etc. from processed animal leather.
Papier-mâché: It refers to making all kinds of pencil cases, dishes, mirror frames, etc. using traditional paper and adhesives on which traditional painting has been done.
Pate Embroidery: The embroidery (Rou-Doozi) with the use of the Boteh-Jeghe design using coloured Cotton thread and Wool on plain woolen fabrics in a colour called Ariz.
Traditional dyeing: dyeing and fixing natural fibers with natural colors (runas, walnut, etc.)
Traditional spinning: it is called turning raw fibers of wool, cotton, fur, etc. into long and strong thread by spindle or spinning wheel.


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